CONCLUSIONS:
Rhodiola exhibits a multi-targeted effect on transcription to regulate the cellular response, affecting the various signaling pathways and molecular networks associated with beneficial effects on emotional behavior, particularly aggressive behavior, and with psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, and gastrointestinal disorders. Each of the purified compounds has its own pharmacological profile, which is both similar to and different from that of the total Rhodiola extract. In general, several compounds contribute to the specific cellular or/and physiological function of the extract in various diseases.

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